Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Transportation for the smaller expenditure of human power.

Transportation
during Industrial Revolution

Industrial
Revolution is the era where a lot of technological discoveries were made,
including transportation

Introduction

Industrial revolution is the process when agrarian and
handicraft economy transformed into a rather dominating industrial and
manufacturing one. The process began in 18th century in Britain and
later influenced other parts of the world. The term “industrial revolution” was first popularized by the English economic
historian Arnold Toynbee that described the economic development of Britain
during 1760-1840.

During the mentioned period of time the new basic use of
materials like iron and steel were discovered; new energy sources like steam
engine, internal combustion engine were invented; a lot of mass producing
machines like power loom and spinning jenny were invented that allowed
increased rate of production for the smaller expenditure of human power. Also,
massive improvements were made in road, railway and canal transportation.

Importance
of improving transportation

Before
Industrial Revolution there was a time lag in almost every way of
transportation, especially in the big countries like United States. It took
weeks or even months to pass a letter, a piece of information, or goods across
the country. The Transportation Revolution changed all of that. The three main
elements that revolutionized transportation are: roads, railroads, and canals.

Before
improvements there very few roads and even they were in poor condition. They
were muddy, easily flooded, and filled with boulders which made travels by
stagecoach or wagon very difficult and even dangerous.

Canals,
which are in fact man-made waterways, were built to connect cities and make
inland transportation quicker and easier. Canals were mainly used to transport
huge amounts of heavy produce because vehicles and road condition during 18th
century made it impossible to move the goods.

Out of all ways of transportation methods, the railroad had
the biggest positive impact on the Industrial Revolution as a whole. As well as
canals, it opened a possibility to transport very large amount of goods, but
unlike canals it could be done much quicker and over very large distances. It
helped factories produce more at a faster rate by delivering raw material and
coal, and in turn, deliver finished goods to cities and rural areas located not
far from a railway track.

Development
of roads

Streets, for longer than individuals could recall, were
simply soil tracks that turned to mud in the winter and baked rock hard in the
late spring. In any case, movement along these so called roads was troublesome
and at specific circumstances of the year, for all intents and purposes
unimaginable.

By law, each village needed to take care of the part of the
road that went through their zone. Men were intended to labor for 6 days
consistently to keep up and repair the streets. Nonetheless, not very many
villagers did so, since they were not especially excited by doing this errand
particularly as it appeared to offer them no advantages.

In any case, the development of the Industrial Revolution
required a decent transport framework and in 1663, Parliament passed what was
known as the Turnpike Act. This was initially use only in three regions to
check whether it worked. The act enabled judges in these three areas to charge
individuals for utilizing streets in these provinces and the cash raised was
spent on legitimately keeping up these streets. The achievement of this plan
implied that the 1663 Act was the first of hundreds all through the nation.

Privately owned businesses called Turnpike Trusts were built
up. The cash raised by charging individuals to utilize the streets was the
profit for investors, as well as benefits for the cost of improving the roads
in the control of the trust. Individuals needed to pay what was known as a toll
to travel on those roads. Toll doors were built up through which individuals
and carriages needed to go before proceeding with their trip. As planned, the roads
were maintained well yet many individuals protested paying a toll. Some would
even hop over the toll entryway to avoid paying. To decrease such occurrence,
spikes were put at the highest point of the entryways. In few places, the toll
entryways were unpopular to the point, that they were destroyed. Parliament
passed a law that implied any individual who was discovered wrecking a toll
gate could be executed. Some of the people with great influence in Parliament
were as well investing in those roads hence why the sentence was so savage.

Two men are credited with enhancing the streets of Britain –
Thomas Telford and John McAdam. Telford had confidence in building streets that
would last and required little repair. His streets cost a great deal of cash
and they had to take a long time to build – however they endured. McAdam’s
streets were less expensive as Telford’s, though still hard wearing; also he
trusted that the heaviness of the traffic using his roads would press it and
make it stronger. As his streets were less expensive, they were used more by
the toll gate owners.

 

 

Development
of canals

Canals were man-made waterways which were used by canal boats
that were fit for moving almost forty tons of weight. This was significantly
more than a pack of donkeys or a horse and carriage could transport. Canals were
not only built for transportation, but also was an effective way to irrigate
farms leading to growth in agriculture.

The man most connected with early waterways was the Duke of
Bridgewater. He possessed coal mines in Lancashire however he expected to get
the coal to the huge market of Manchester which was about six miles away. The
duke gave the undertaking of planning and building the canal to James Brindley
– a specialist who at the time had never constructed something like that. All
things considered, the duke was taking a great risk and he even needed to
obtain £25,000 to pay for the project – which was an immense total of cash at
that point.

It took two years to construct the waterway which was
finished in 1761. The canal had a bunch of passages which were connected
specifically to the coal mines. It had a huge success and other
individuals saw the achievement of the Bridgewater Canal and chose to do them
in the same manner opening up Britain considerably more with a progression of canals
that connected the major mechanical focuses of Britain.

Waterways were great at moving delicate products, for
example, pottery as well as already mentioned coal. They were actually faster than
carriages and pack of donkeys since its own force would prop the boat at a
decent pace consistently. By 1840, there were about 4,500 miles of canals in
Britain. However in later years their extraordinary days were finished.

Manufacturers build different sized canals, thus the size of
a barge mattered. For example, if a barge is too wide, it would not be able to
be used on a small canal. This limited them a great deal. As roads improved,
better steed drawn carriages were produced. These were a great deal quicker
than canal boats and travelers preferred them as opposed to canals. Food that
spoiled rapidly couldn’t be transported by canals as fridges were not invented
at the time. Probably the greatest problem of all is the fact that canals
freeze up in winter and a hot summer usually dried them out unless they were
not regularly filled with water. Canals continued to be competitive until 1950
where trains completely replaced them.

 

 

 

 

Development
of railroads

Railroads were to push Britain into the nineteenth century.
Wagons that got pulled along on tracks had existed for a few while; however
these wagons had been pulled by horses. The most iconic invention of Industrial
Revolution was most successfully incarnated into the steam driven locomotive.

In 1767 Richard Reynolds made an arrangement of rails for
moving coal at the mine; these were at first wood, but later were redesigned
into iron rails. In 1801 the primary Act of Parliament was passed for the
making of a ‘railroad’, though the wagons were supposed to be pulled by horses.
Meanwhile, the steam engine was being evolving. The first time a railway used a steam locomotive
running on rails was the Liverpool to Manchester railway in 1830.

At first
locomotives were mainly used to transport goods, but soon people were soon
recognizing great potential in passenger travelling. Industrialists soon
understood that railroads could make a reasonable benefit, and in 1835 – 37,
and 1844 – 48 there was such a blast in the production of rail lines that “railway
mania” was said to have swept the country. By 1850s railways made from
passengers more than freight. Railroads majorly affected farming, as perishable
merchandise, for example, dairy products could now be moved long distance without
them being inedible. Passenger trains usually contained first, second and
third-class carriages. First-class carriages were completely enclosed and had
padded seats, arm rests, and glass windows, second-class carriages had wooden benches and were open at
the sides, while third-class carriages were just open trucks, thus even the poor could afford the cost of transport
which motivated them to get jobs outside their village, in a big city.

Conclusion

Many discoveries were made during industrial revolution. Some
of the technologies of today are based off initial invention during industrial
revolution such as macadam roads or a locomotive. This era shows how a world
can change in a mere one century transitioning from primitive ways of
travelling, hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. We are living in the Computer
Era and we may only guess what will happen to our world in 20 years, 50 years
or even 1 century.