The Struggle for Civil RightsAdam VangEthnic Studies 101Fall 2017Professor EstradaDecember 11, 2017The Struggle for Civil RightsDuring the mid-twentieth century, the importance of civil rights became very prominent due to the high amount of racism and the on going segregation of different races. Civil rights issues were projected in every race, the African-Americans, the Native Americans, The Chicanos, and the Asians. Due to the mistreatment of these ethnic groups and the racial injustice against them, it caused multiple civil rights movements and groups to appear and fight for their rights and acceptance. The African-American Civil Rights Movement, was the first civil rights movement to emerge in the 1950’s – 1960’s. This movement dealt with racism and segregation that were occuring during this time, such as the Jim Crow laws, the court case of Plessy v. Ferguson, and the unfair treatment of African-Americans in the workforce. These laid the foundation and helped launch the African American Civil Rights Movement. Being one of the biggest civil rights movement, many events occurred during this time such as the Montgomery bus boycott, the march to Washington, and many of the civil rights laws that passed. Rosa Parks can partially be accredited with being one of the people that jump started the civil rights movement due to the tragedy of her being arrested, as her arrest sparked the movement. This incident happened on December 1st of 1995, when parks wouldn’t move to give up her seat when the bus driver asked her to move even though she was in the “black section” of the bus. When asked to move, Parks stated,”My feet were not tired but I was tired—tired of unfair treatment.”(McGhee 254) thus resulting in her arrest. After Parks was arrested and the news spread, the Black community was raged and form the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA), with Martin Luther King Jr. as their leader. This incident resulted in a 381 day bus boycott which ultimately resulted to the Supreme Court ruling that it was unconstitutional to have segregated seat on the bus. After the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Martin Luther King would become the face of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He would go on to lead many other protests and events of the civil rights movement. The most famous Civil Rights Movement event took place on August 28, 1963: The March on Washington. Over 200,000 people attended this event that was for civil rights legislation and establishing equality for everyone. Here, Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous speech, “I have a Dream”. After this event, in June of 1964, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed, which stated that “The law guaranteed equal employment for all, limited the use of voter literacy tests and allowed federal authorities to ensure public facilities were integrated” (History) Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. were two very important figures in the Civil rights Movement but the most important things to emerge out of the civil rights movement are the laws that were made for civil rights. For example, the Civil Rights Act of 1957, signed by President Eisenhower that allowed federal prosecution against anybody that tried to prevent someone from voting. Another example would be, the Voting Rights Act of 1965. One more example of a law that rose from the civil rights movement is the Fair Housing Act of 1968, that prevented housing discrimination based on sex, race, national origin and religion. These are the truly important because these laws are what all of the civil rights group and activist were fighting for.The African-American Civil Rights Movement paved the way for many other civil rights movements as well, and one of these were The Red Power Movement. The Red Power Movement, was civil rights movement that occurred during the mid-twentieth century, mainly focused on reacquiring Native American land back from the United States. The Red Power Movement gave rise to activist groups such as the Indians Of All Tribes (IOAT) and the American Indian Movement (AIM). These two groups played a major role in the Red Power Movement and became the face of the Red Power Movement. On November 20, 1969 IOAT, mainly consisting of students, banned together and took over Alcatraz Island at an attempt to retake their land. IOAT was initially formed to try and reclaim Alcatraz Island because it was originally Native American land. The IOAT told the media: We, the native Americans, reclaim the land known as Alcatraz Island in the name of allAmerican Indians by right of discovery…. We will purchase said Alcatraz for twenty-four dollars in glass beads and red cloth…. Our offer of 1.24 per acre is greater than the 47 cents per acre the white men are now paying the California Indians for their land. They Native Americans that occupied Alcatraz made many demands and negotiated with the Federal Officials to try and reclaim back their land. IOAT were non-confrontational and very peaceful. As stated in Native Peoples Magazine,”They did so without violence. ‘We were going to be a positive example for Indian people and show a positive face to the world’ Fortunate Eagle said.” (Winton 28) Their Native Americans occupation of the island lasted 19 months but ultimately proved unsuccessful in trying to reclaim Alcatraz. Although, they did not reacquire their land, the Indian people made their point known to the American public. The occupation of Alcatraz Island by IOAT was the first major event of the Red Power Movement. After the event on Alcatraz, other protest and occupations continued but did not draw as much media attention to the Red Power Movement, until the siege of Wounded Knee in 1973. The occupation of Wounded Knee occurred due to unfair treatment of the Indian people at Wounded Knee by tribal chairman Russell Wilson, resulting in the people wanting to impeach him. The occupation of Wounded Knee was lead by the activist group AIM, who was at the forefront of the Red Power Movement, and unlike the occupation of Alcatraz, this event was not a peaceful protest. AIM were not as peaceful as IOAT. They were, as said in Red Power, “a new, more militant group on the national activist scene…” (Johnson 7). They used military tactics and strategies to occupy Wounded Knee. The siege of Wounded Knee only lasted 10 weeks and were shut down by the Federal Government and again the Native Americans demands were not met. These two events didn’t do much to help the Native people with their hope of returning their land to them, but they did however bring attention to their situation, making people more aware of what was going on. In 1973, the Red Power Movement’s last major event happened in July, 1978, “The Longest Walk”. This event was a peaceful and spiritual protest that tried to bring attention to the forced removal of the Indian people over the past few hundred years and their on going problems. Not only did The Red Power Movement emerged from the civil rights movements, but there was also another movement, The Chicano Movement. This movement raised awareness to their rights and the idea of Chicanismo, the supporting ideology of the Chicano Movement,. The Chicano Movement is composed of many components such as the Land Grant Movement in New Mexico with Reies López Tijerina, Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales and the idea of Chicanismo and how he defines the Chicano through his poem, “I Am Joaquin”.The Chicano Movement originally started as a fight for to persuade the federal government to honor the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 by Reies Lopez Tijerina. He led the Alianza Federal de Mercedes in New Mexico, fighting for the land right of the Chicanos. Reies attempted to gains achieve his goals by legal means at the beginning but eventually came to the conclusion of using violence if deemed necessary. He used violence in his form of protest, from the March on Sante Fe and the courthouse raid. Ultimately, it involved in his incarceration but continued to speak out against the government symbolizing as one of the biggest Chicano Movement figures. Reies laid the foundation for it and it was soon to be picked up by Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales.Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales applied the idea of Chicanismo to the Chicano Movement, using it as the underlying ideology of the movement. It incorporated a spiritual and cultural revolution to the way of life. He explains this by using his poem, “I Am Joaquin” which explains what it means to be Chicano. Corky soon founded The Crusade for Justice to help change the Mexican-American communities educational systems. The “Crusade For Justice was basically a civil rights organization with demands similar to those of other like organization,” (Marin 109). Although many organizations and group emerged as a response to the Chicano Movement, Corky’s Crusade for Justice were one of the most successful and important organizations. Reies Lopez Tijerina and Rodolfo “Corky” Gonzales may have been two of the most important figures of the Chicano Movement. They defined the Chicanos and fought for their people civil rights in their own ways.There was one more civil rights movement during this time and it was the Asian-American Movement. The Asian-American Civil Rights Movement was based along the same lines as the other movements, concerning of education rights, political rights, and economic rights. Groups such as Asian American Political Alliance(AAPA) and Asian American For Equality (AAFE) were dedicated to having equal rights in the United States. AAPA formed by college students originally formed at UC Berkeley to unite all asians as one for social and political means. They’ve participated in strikes such as the San Francisco State University Strike of 1968, for, “…demands for an education more relevant and accessible to their communities.” (Umemeto 3). They were some of the most militant groups involved at the San Francisco Strike. As for the AAFE, they were formed more towards the end of the civil rights movement. They were formed to advocate for their equal rights for affordable housing and equal employment. An example of their work would be the fight for employment in Chinatown. During the built of Confucius Plaza builders wouldn’t hire Chinese workers. In an article by Peter Gee, it is stated, “Despite city policies requiring employment opportunities for minority workers, the builder refused to hire Chinese applicants.” (Gee 10). After 6 months AAFE got their first win when the builder was forced to hire 27 minority workers. This was only the beginning for AAFE and they continued to be a leading group for civil rights well into the 1970s. Throughout the whole Civil Rights Movement, it is noticeable that the component that drives each and every one of these movement is the unfair treatment of the minority groups in which the government withholds civil rights from these ethnic groups. Each group shares similar experiences that strips them of their rights. For example, discrimination of race in the workforce between the Asian-Americans and the African-Americans, or with holding land from the Mexican-Americans and Native-American. In return, activists organizations are formed to combat the federal government’s policies to try and obtain their civil rights.