Rainforest is land that has high rainfall
annually and can be discovered in few areas of forests. Its supplied food and
shelter for variety of habitats, reserve oxygen in the atmosphere to breathe
and others, but recently people tend to clear the forests. Deforestation is the
procedure of clearing a large area of trees in order to use the land for other
purposes. Generally, they are clearing up rainforests for many reasons and
because of that, there are a lot of damages to the land of rainforest, animals,
plants and even human. So, this essay will discuss the causes of deforestation
in terms of agriculture, logging methods and economic social causes and the
effects from all the causes to the ecosystem and biodiversity as a whole.
There are many causes of deforestation of
rainforests. Firstly, deforestation is causes from agriculture purposes.
Farmers usually clear the land for cattle grazing and cattle ranching.
Deliberately, McLeish (2007) studied that they demolished a large area of land
by taking over the forests and vanished the land themselves and then transform
it into pasture to provide animals to use as food resources. In the mean time,
the animals eat too much of the plants and the ranchers also repeated the
process by shifting far down into the forest. Then, other causes of the
deforestation are farmers using insufficient farming methods in agriculture
use. They are not using the right farming tools, which they used
traditional technique that no longer work well with current circumstances. This
kind of method used up the rain forests’ natural resources. Also McLeish (2007)
said the farmers often deficient of the skills of the traditional procedure and
so the land failed to develop farm. Next, agriculture businesses also cause the
deforestation. The expanding of market demand for soya plantation shows a
positive response, which increasing in the request of the soya as the rise in
number of population. So, the farming owners decided to diminish a huge area
land for make wider agriculture plantation. Therefore, it is clearly showed
cattle grazing, insufficient farming methods and agriculture businesses are the
reasons of deforestation.
The second principal cause of
deforestation is logging operation. Initially, this is because of the human
activities. They commonly will cut and burn the trees to offer hardwood and the
most popular use of woods is used for the origin of fuel. The urban
civilization is the major use of it. After they have cutting down the trees,
the woods will be changed into charcoal and then fuel will produce as well.
Furthermore, deforestation is also caused by logging activities, where this
process has been used in order to produce building substances and furniture. For
example, they chopped down the trees to provide wood like mahogany and rosewood.
From Strenstrup (2009) studies that in the application of concerning the
selection of logging (legal or illegal) of valuable types of trees like
mahogany are endanger the strength of Amazonian forests. Then, there is also an
illegal logging. It is because they wanted to overproduce of cheap production
of agricultural plantation like palm oil or soya or cocoa and many more but
they used to use unlawful logging activities. Hence, I strongly believe that
logging operation also the main causes of deforestation.
The third causes of deforestation are
economic and social. Firstly, the rising number of population (or
overpopulation) bring into development of urban areas by burning the forests.
For instance, highway construction and road building affect a huge of the
forest in order to satisfy human needs. As the result, many of people who lived
in the forest become threatened and lack of sources causes them to migrate to
another places. Next, debt where many poverty and even the flourish countries
owe from the bank in a large amount of money in order to survive and as McLeish
(2007) argues that they usually found it hard to pay out the interest payment
made by the bank agencies. This
influenced the people who owe the money to utilize their forests for timber. From
Golden and Miller (1994) said the other reason is people decided to cutting
down more trees like mahogany trees to earn more money to support their lives
and to feed the necessities for family members. Moreover, access to technology
also a factor of increasing number of forests that being damaged. The existing
of technology permitted ‘industrial-scale’ agriculture in speeding the forest
clearing. For instance, insufficient of technology used in establishing
industry lead to more harmful in the surrounding forests. Hence, it is proven
that economic and social are one of the causes of deforestation.
There are many important causes of
deforestation included the agriculture purposes, logging activities by the
human and economic social. As the result of these reasons, these bring into
many effects to the world globally. The major results that need to be
acknowledged by society and the government as well can be categorized into
three main effects, which involved the atmosphere, social, and the ecosystem.
First significant effect of deforestation
is climate change and pollution. Slash and burn agriculture techniques and not
replanting the trees after that, lead to global warming. This causes of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere traps sun radiation. The radiation converted to heat,
which is also known as greenhouse gases. It has affect trees to release carbon
stores. Deforestation also brings on increasing rapidly and severity of global
warming in the air (Deforestation, n.d.) as well as resulting in the ability of
absorbs polluting gases. Another impact is rainfall and temperate. There is
significant proportion of rainfalls that cycle the water from the rainforests
and because of the human activities have took over the rainforests with crops
of cattle grazing, this impacts a drier and hotter climate tropics (Lindsey, 2007).
Furthermore, deforestation made by the human activities also affected to
terrible floods and mudslides because the remaining land that not being damaged
becomes unable to support farming and bring into failed of farming. To give an
example that affected from this awful situation is its drove 24 people to
death. This is because the soil becomes unproductive as well as the farmers not
affordable to purchase soil additives and fertilizers (Stenstrup, 2009).
Second impact is biodiversity loss and
other implication. Clearing forests causes destroy of biodiversity. According
to Wilson (1989) estimated that over 6000 species a year are currently leads to
extinction. “Other studies suggest that the extinction rate could rise between
7000 and 27000 species a year” (WRI, 1993, as cited in Pakenham, 2005, pp.
205-207). Therefore, this also bring into declined in pharmacy drugs. From the
studies from Rainforest Concern (2008) stated it is more than 25% of our modern
medicines evolved from tropical forest plants and resulted the habitat was
threatened due to extinction. Then, loss of forests land also bring into
scarcity of natural resources that lead to warfare among the societies. “If we
fail to preserve the rain forests, more people will die than have perished in
world wars. Without rain forests, people are going to fight over patch of
shade, a little bit of water, the kind environment that permits them to live –
and that is going to be fatal” (De León, as cited in Golden & Miller, 1994,
p. 47-53). The percentage of poverty rises and more harmful. Lastly, the
agribusiness influenced to pollution of soil. The soil become not resistance to
pesticides and affected the farmers’ health who used them.
In conclusion, it is clearly reveal that
the causes of deforestation like agriculture purposes, logging operation and
economic and social problems have impacted to climate change and pollution,
biodiversity loss and other consequences. All people either society or
government should be more aware about the used of forests’ land in order to
preserve the land for long-term use. All problems occurred when some people do
not have any sense to keep valuable of ecosystem provide for us and to the world
and the only way to overcome is to raise awareness among society in the first