Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

p.p1 weathering pattern. If you observe the cemetery

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The Salt Lake City Cemetery provides several geological significance. Even though the site is just a cemetery, the tombstone itself provides great examples of geology. An example of geology in a cemetery would be the gravestones and how it weathers out. The term of weathering is when a rock is broken down to its original form. Depending on the rock type, each weathering pattern is different from one another. The key patterns of weathering in gravestones are chemical, physical and biological weathering. Some gravestone can share the multiple types of weathering pattern. If you observe the cemetery well, you can find some geological significance in the tombstone itself. 
Chemical weathering occurs within the rocks when they can chemically change. There is three reaction of chemical weathering, which are oxidation, hydrolysis, and carbonation. Oxidation is another way of saying that rocks/minerals react with oxygen. Which happens to change the composition of the mineral in the rock. An example would be “iron in the minerals, which make up some rocks or, which cements rock particles together, will oxides (or rust) if water and air are present” (Tymon, A. 2012 Weathering on gravestones). Usually, in sandstone, oxidation happens to turn the stone into a brown color, based on the irons made up of stone. Oxidation can be in another form of chemical weathering when oxygen gets combined with other elements in the rock that start to oxides. An example of iron chemical reaction is 3fe^+2SiO3 (pyroxene) + 1/2O2 (Oxygen) = Fe3O4 (magnetite) + 3SiO2 (quartz). Hydrolysis, which involves water, and some time rainwater, which is slightly acidic because the rainwater picks up carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that reacts with some minerals. This caused them to decompose making the other mineral weaker. Physical features of hydrolysis on the gravestone are either mineral turns to powdery clay or grainy salts. An example would be the crystals found in the granite. Granite feldspar crystals are white and will usually break down faster than the quartz crystal in the granite leaving it, to become darker. Basically “Na feldspar and K feldspar undergo hydrolysis to form kaolinite (clay) and Na + and K + ions. The quartz (and muscovite that may be present) remain as residual minerals due to their high weathering resistance and then biotite/amphibole undergo hydrolysis to form clay, and oxidation to form iron oxides. The weathered rock fragments become constituents of the soil” (Earth Sciences: London’s Geology. (n.d.)). “Carbonation is the process when the mineral of a rock reacts with carbonic acid” (Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 2 – Processes of Weathering. (n.d.)). When water mixed with carbon dioxide it creates carbon acid. In rock carbonic acid, break down or dissolve the minerals in the rock. Example of carbonation formula is “CO2 + H2O = >H2CO3 (carbon dioxide + water = carbonic acid) and CaCo3 + H2Co3 => Ca^+2 + 2HCO3- (Calcite + Carbonic acid => calcium + Bicarbonate)” (Soil Genesis and Development). 
Physical characteristics of physical weathering are cracking, chipping, parting, sheeting, fracturing, and flaking. Mechanical weathering known as physical weathering breaks down stone without any chemical alterations. There are two main types of mechanical weathering, which are expansion-contraction and freeze-thaw weathering. Expansion-contraction weathering occurs when heat from the sun causes the rock to expand and contract. The outer part of the rock will expand during high daytime temperatures and will rapidly cool at night. This reaction cause stress in their rock and by doing so makes the rock to slowly produce cracks. The other type is freeze-thaw weathering, which its other name is “frost-shattering weathering.” Types of weathering depend on the expansion of water when it starts to freeze into ice. Normally this only affects rock in climates that have temperatures around freezing-points. When water enters the cracks, pores, and joints of the rock it will start to expand by freezing and will forcibly push the rocks apart. This reaction results involved rocks to become broken and normally fall due to gravity. An example would be picture 1, with the gravestone that broken in half. 
Biological weathering features are usually lichens, moss, or the ground becoming unleveled. The physical appearance of a gravestone that affects the stone itself is animals and plants. The most common form of biological weathering involves lichen and moss. Moss and lichen attach themselves to the rock surface and by doing so allows them to take in moisture and nutrients from the air. “Lichen is normally rich in chelating agents, which helps it bonds to iron and other kinds of metal rocks” (How Does Weathering Affect Monuments). This leaves the stone to become weak and is vulnerable to cracks and wears. An example of lichen on graves would be on picture number 6. Another biological type involving plants are roots. Some plant in roots at a gravestone can penetrate small space in the gravestone, or the roots could make the gravestone become unleveled or toppled. 
The Salt Lake City Cemetery can provide some geological significance in geology. Even though there is just tombstone at the site, the tombstone represents rocks and with stones present, you can always find some geological significance even though its small. By carefully studying the patterns of weathering, you can evaluate, which gravestone changed. With a site that provides a few geological features, you still can find some features by looking at the gravestone, that provides hidden features of geology.

Bibliography
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3. Earth Sciences: London’s Geology. (n.d.). Retrieved December 06, 2017, from https://www.ucl.ac.uk/earth-sciences/impact/geology/london/citycemetery/weathering/classification
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