Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Introduction of 5.38% per year (FRSS, 2015). This

Introduction

Aquaculture
production in Bangladesh is going up day by day through amplification. There
are three types of fisheries: inland capture fisheries, inland aquaculture and
marine fisheries, of which the inland aquaculture sector is contributing more
than 55% of the total production (DoF,
2016). Fishes are the most ancient and many forms
of species among the vertebrates. In Indian, region out of 2,500 species, the
1,570 are marine and 930 are freshwater inhabitants belong to 326 genera, 99
families and 20 orders. There are 475 marine species and 269 freshwater species
in Bangladesh. The genus Puntius represents the largest number of
cyprinid genera in Asian tropics. Aquaculture is the rapidest growing food
production sector in the world which plays a major role in the economy in term
of food, nutrition, income, employment and foreign exchange earnings.  Bangladesh is the 4th major fish producing
country in the World. According to the latest available information collected
globally by FAO, world aquaculture production was 337 90.4 million tonnes by
weight and US$144.4 billion by value in 2012, including 66.6 million tonnes of
food fish and 23.8 million tonnes of aquatic algae (FAO, 2014). Total fish
production in our country during the 2011-2012 was about 3.26 million metric
tons of which 2.68 million metric tons were produced from freshwater including
culture fisheries and 0.05 million metric tons from marine water including
shrimp (DoF, 2013). In 2012, the sector contributed 4.4% of GDP and 23% of
total agricultural production. Shrimp export alone is value more than USD 450
million annually which makes it a top performer among export products in
Bangladesh. About 10% of the population is dependent directly and indirectly on
the fisheries for their living (DoF, 2013). In 2014–2015, total fishery production of Bangladesh was 3,684,245 metric tonnes, of which
1,023,991 metric tons was obtained from inland capture fisheries. Contributing 3.69% GDP of the
total country GDP and 22.60% to the agricultural GDP (FRSS, 2016). Over the last 10 years the fisheries growth was quite
steady and at an average of 5.38% per year (FRSS, 2015). This sector skilled more or less dependable
growth rate, ranging from 7.32% growth in 2009-2010 to 4.04% growth in
2013-2014 (Bangladesh Economic Review, 2014). It has
already been notable as a primary income and employment-generating sector in
Bangladesh, inexpensive sources of healthy food for the population of the
country. Fish supplements about 60% of Bangladeshi people’s daily animal
protein intake (DoF, 2016). More than 17 million people including
about 1.4 million women depend on fisheries sector for their livelihoods
through fishing, farming, fish handling, and processing (BFTI, 2016, p. 1215). Winning aquaculture is now
depending on the chemicals which have been used in various methods for
centuries. Aquaculture drugs are major elements in health management of aquatic
animals, pond construction, soil and water
management, improve aquatic productivity, feed formulation, manipulation of
reproduction, growth promotion and processing and value addition of the final
product. There are dissimilar kinds or drug and chemical are used in
aquaculture for health management of fish apart from antibiotics. Different kinds
of chemical and drug are used in aquaculture for health management. These
included sodium chloride, formalin, malachite green, methylene blue, potassium
permanganate, glutaraldehyde and trifluralin. Other popular conventional
aqua-medicines included Zeolite, EDTA, gypsum, lime, alum were used for the
purpose of pond soil and water quality management. These are broadly used to
neutralize acidity, increase total alkalinity, increase hardness in the soil
and water of grow out pond, reduce turbidity in ponds, Chalets divalent and
trivalent metal cations etc. Potasium permanganate (KMnO4,) was one of the most
widely used aqua-medicines in fish health management. It is a strong oxidizing intermediary
approved for the purpose to treat ponds. It is good for treating external
protozoa and bacterial infections. Most of the farmers do not know the
appropriate dosages, method of application. Farmers were also not seen too mindful
about the mode of action of particular chemical. As a consequence, during
disease treatment primary they try with one chemical and if it does not work,
they try for other one. They used doses of particular chemical on either from
their own experiences, or from the instruction of the package, if` there is any
and from the suggestion of chemical sellers. Indiscriminate use of drugs and
chemicals has damaging effect on ecosystem and human health. Many chemicals may
continue for many months in aquatic system, retaining their biocidal
properties. Some antibacterial, oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and flumequine,
can also be established in sediments at least six months. Antibiotics used in
aquaculture connect the progress and transfer of drug resistance to pathogenic
bacteria from farmed animals to humans. The occurrence of antimicrobial
resistance is growing worldwide and this growing problem is often credited to
the extensive use of antibiotics for clinical purposes in human medicine and by
the agriculture industry. Moveable antibiotic resistance can also make in human
pathogens. Genetic investigations of drug conflict fish pathogens revealed that
recognized antibiotic resistant genes from human bacterial pathogen is can be
responsible for antibiotic resistance in fish bacterial pathogens. Bangladesh
Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) had initiated a project on drugs and
chemicals used in aquaculture. They surveyed on drugs and chemicals used in
aquaculture with coastal and freshwater environment. They made a list of drugs
and chemicals used in aquaculture concerted some places of the country.
However, many places of the country are intact under this project. Therefore
Dinajpur district is one of them. There is a lack of information on the subject
of the present status and consequences of aqua-medicines using in aquaculture
activities in Dinajpur district. With the extension of aquaculture, the use of chemicals,
antibiotics and aqua drugs are increasing tremendously. But no appropriate
research works have been carried out on the use of drugs in aquaculture for
fish health management in Dinajpur district. Therefore, the present work will
be carried out to list the drugs and chemicals used in aquaculture and the evaluate
the purpose, methods and dosage of application in Dinajpur region as well as
the impacts to the aquaculture.

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Objectives

v  To
inquiry widely used aqua-drugs and chemicals in Dinajpur region

v  To
evaluate fish production between culture system using chemicals and without
chemicals

v  To
be acquainted with the impact of aqua-drugs and chemicals on fish health

x

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