Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

In were more important than the tunes. Such

In 1620 the Pilgrims arrived in New England with the intention of forming a new colony free from corruption in Plymouth after receiving religious persecution from England. These Protestants did not agree with England’s perspective on Christianity, which they found too Catholic and separated from them. Later in 1630 the Puritans arrived in Boston and established Massachusetts Bay Colony, however instead of breaking from the Church, they reformed under Calvinist orthodoxy. Governor John Winthrop ensured his citizens to follow his lead God’s obligations or else be punished for blasphemy. They utilized the bible and sang psalms and hymns a cappella by having deacons “lining out” the psalms when most people couldn’t read and as part of their worship when musical instruments were forbidden. Singing psalms was an essential part of the English colonists’ religious practice, especially for New England as words were more important than the tunes. Such as Psalm 23, “Restore my soul doth he: he doth in paths of righteousness: for his names sake lead me.”1 Throughout the 18th century, Colonial America was transforming and straying away from religion until the 1734 Great Awakening, when the colonies were reviving from human depravity after “The wrath of God burns against them, their damnation does not slumber; the pit is prepared, the fire is made ready, the furnace is hot, ready to receive them; the flames do now rage and glow”2 During this time, church practices sparked debates by performing these psalms, then instruments (such as the organ and violin), instrumental music, music schools and church choirs   gradually emerged where Calvinism predominated along with concerts, shaping up how people used music in their worship, enhancing colonial American culture.  Way before the Puritans came, the Native Americans used music in ceremonial or social traditions to connect spiritually with nature and the supernatural. “Indians used song as a means of accomplishing definite results.”3 For example, they would sing in marriages, war, healing, harvest, and birth. They would also sing and/or play songs, such as game songs to bring players good luck when gambling in games. Although, they didn’t have much of an impact on colonial America other than Amerindian communities, because the European Americans didn’t treat them as equals, these traditions helped Native Americans connect to their heritage as a tribe’s history is told by music and kept alive by oral narratives. Traditions differ from tribes and locations and are important to their identity. Examples such as the Iroquois from the Eastern Woodlands region, who sang melodies, yodeled and danced around their longhouse during ceremonies. Their leaders would call and sing a short, simple melody and dancers would respond. Or the Navajo and Apache in the Southwest, who  Although claimed to have never changed since the beginning, these cannot be confirmed other than assumption and archaeological evidence, the earliest affirmation of Native American music came along with the arrival of European explorers. Musical instruments and pictographs portraying music and dance date far back to the 7th century. Instruments such as drums, flutes, and other percussions were used mainly for rituals, however the most notable aspect of their music are their voice, which vary from low to high ranges and melodies. Everyone would gather in large groups and sing in unison, making the music haunting and powerful, yet effective. Tribes have collaborated with other communities’ traditions and created Pan-tribalism.    After Christopher Columbus’s consequential arrival to the New World in 1492, the Spanish made their settlements in the southern United States. They were influenced by Catholicism and had hymns, Alabados (sacred hymns), instrumental, and chant music. In order to create missionary music, the Spanish utilized the encomienda system that provided land from encomenderos to establish missions where Catholic priests and friars would convert and exploit the Native Americans. They would often    The first theater in America was made in Williamsburg, VA in 1716, where William Levingston made a contract with Charles Stagg that says “to cause to be erected and built at his proper costs and charge of Wmnsburgh one good substantiall House commodious for acting such as Plays as shall be thought fit to be acted there”4 or in other words “bear equal share in all the charges of cloathes, musick, and other necessaries for acting in play…”5 Colonial music was played in theaters, large ballrooms where people danced, and churches. From classical, country, folk music. Many of these songs were from England or Ireland in the form of ballads or jigs. Everyone would make music on their own when they would entertain themselves. When lined-out hymns were unpleasant, singing schools were made to teach people how to sing correctly, in tune, read musical notation, etc. William Billings, a composer, would teach   However, colonial American music was not just made by Puritans, Spanish, or the Native Americans, but also made by African-American slaves who brought their culture from Africa and helped developed music of colonial America. They were brought by the Europeans to make up for the losses of majority of Native Americans needed to labor for the Puritans since 1621 and for trade. They would sing slowly and steadily while working for the White Americans, worshipped, and sang psalms and hymns after being introduced by their Anglican owners. In 1720, African Americans would adapt Old testament stories into their worship and created spirituals. They were mimicked by white people either by imitating their music as an honor or mocked when the whites painted their faces black (blackface) and used their slang  During the Revolutionary War, many songs in public rallies were spread throughout the nation, used as propaganda to inspire patriotism, and taken in as American classics. Such as “Yankee Doodle” that went from a song that British soldiers sang to mock the colonists to an American classic. These were also used in the battlefield with the fife (a small, high-pitched flute used with the drum in military bands) and drum, as music from both instruments raised troop’s morale and calls to order them around the battlefield.