Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

Cyber The scope of cyber security is not

Cyber Security plays an important role in the field
of information technology .Securing the information have become one of the
biggest challenges in the present day. Whenever we think about the cyber
security the first thing that comes to our mind is ‘cyber crimes’ which are
increasing immensely day by day. Various Governments and companies are taking
many measures in order to prevent these cyber crimes. Besides various measures
cyber security is still a very big concern to many. This paper mainly focuses on
challenges faced by cyber security on the latest technologies. It also focuses
on latest about the cyber security techniques, ethics and the trends changing
the face of cyber security.

KEYWORDS: cyber security,
cyber crime, cyber ethics, social media, cloud computing, android apps.

1.
INTRODUCTION

Today man is able to send and receive any form of
data may be an e-mail or an audio or video just by the click of a button but
did he ever think how securely his data id being transmitted or sent to the
other person safely without any leakage of information?? The answer lies in
cyber security. Today Internet is the fastest growing infrastructure in
everyday life. In today’s technical environment many latest technologies are
changing the face of the mankind. But due to these emerging technologies we are
unable to safeguard our private information in a very effective way and hence
these day’s cyber crimes are increasing day by day. Today more than 60 percent
of total commercial transactions are done online, so this field required a high
quality of security for transparent and best transactions. Hence cyber security
has become a latest issue. The scope of cyber security is not just limited to
securing the information in IT industry but also to various other fields like
cyber space etc. Even the latest technologies like cloud computing, mobile
computing, E-commerce, net banking etc also needs high level of security. Since
these technologies hold some important information regarding a person their
security has become a must thing. Enhancing cyber security and protecting
critical information infrastructures are essential to each nation’s security
and economic wellbeing. Making the Internet safer (and protecting Internet
users) has become integral to the development of new services as well as
governmental policy. The fight against cyber crime needs a comprehensive and a
safer approach. Given that technical measures alone cannot prevent any crime,
it is critical that law enforcement agencies are allowed to investigate and prosecute
cyber crime effectively. Today many nations and governments are imposing strict
laws on cyber securities in order to prevent the loss of some important
information. Every individual must also be trained on this cyber security and
save themselves from these increasing cyber crimes.

2.
CYBER CRIME

Cyber crime is a term for any illegal activity that
uses a computer as its primary means of commission and theft. The U.S.
Department of Justice expands the definition of cyber crime to include any
illegal activity that uses a computer for the storage of evidence. The growing
list of cyber crimes includes crimes that have been made possible by computers,
such as network intrusions and the dissemination of computer viruses, as well
as computer-based variations of existing crimes, such as identity theft,
stalking, bullying and terrorism which have become as major problem to people
and nations. Usually in common man’s language cyber crime may be defined as
crime committed using a computer and the internet to steal a person’s identity
or sell contraband or stalk victims or disrupt operations with malevolent  programs. As day by day technology is playing
in major role in a person’s life the cyber crimes also will increase along with
the technological advances.

3.
CYBER SECURITY

 Privacy and
security of the data will always be top security measures that any organization
takes care. We are presently living in a world where all the information is
maintained in a digital or a cyber form. Social networking sites provide a
space where users feel safe as they interact with friends and family. In the
case of home users, cyber-criminals would continue to target social media sites
to steal personal data. Not only social networking but also during bank
transactions a person must take all the required security measures.

Incidents

Jan-June 2012

Jan-June 2013

% Increase/ (decrease)

Fraud

2439

2490

2

Intrusion

2203

1726

(22)

Spam

291

614

111

Malicious
code

353

442

25

Cyber
Harassment

173

233

35

Content
related

10

42

320

Intrusion
Attempts

55

24

(56)

Denial
of services

12

10

(17)

Vulnerability
reports

45

11

(76)

Total

5581

5592

 

                                                                Table I

The above Comparison of Cyber Security Incidents
reported to Cyber999 in Malaysia from January–June 2012 and 2013 clearly
exhibits the cyber security threats. As crime is increasing even the security
measures are also increasing. According to the survey of U.S. technology and
healthcare executives nationwide, Silicon Valley Bank found that companies
believe cyber attacks are a serious threat to both their data and their
business continuity.

·
98% of companies are maintaining or increasing their cyber security resources
and of those, half are increasing resources devoted to online attacks this year.

 ·
The majority of companies are preparing for when, not if, cyber attacks occur.

·
Only one-third are completely confident in the security of their information
and even less confident about the security measures of their business partners.

 There will be
new attacks on Android operating system based devices, but it will not be on
massive scale. The fact tablets share the same operating system as smart phones
means they will be soon targeted by the same malware as those platforms. The
number of malware specimens for Macs would continue to grow, though much less
than in the case of PCs. Windows 8 will allow users to develop applications for
virtually any device (PCs, tablets and smart phones) running Windows 8, so it
will be possible to develop malicious applications like those for Android,
hence these are some of the predicted trends in cyber security.

4.
TRENDS CHANGING CYBER SECURITY

 Here
mentioned below are some of the trends that are having a huge impact on cyber
security.

 4.1 Web servers

 The threat of
attacks on web applications to extract data or to distribute malicious code
persists. Cyber criminals distribute their malicious code via legitimate web
servers they’ve compromised. But data-stealing attacks, many of which get the
attention of media, are also a big threat. Now, we need a greater emphasis on
protecting web servers and web applications. Web servers are especially the best
platform for these cyber criminals to steal the data. Hence one must always use
a safer browser especially during important transactions in order not to fall
as a prey for these crimes.

4.2
Cloud computing and its services

 These days
all small, medium and large companies are slowly adopting cloud services. In
other words the world is slowly moving towards the clouds. This latest trend
presents a big challenge for cyber security, as traffic can go around
traditional points of inspection. Additionally, as the number of applications
available in the cloud grows, policy controls for web applications and cloud
services will also need to evolve in order to prevent the loss of valuable
information. Though cloud services are developing their own models still a lot
of issues are being brought up about their security. Cloud may provide immense
opportunities but it should always be noted that as the cloud evolves so as its
security concerns increase.

 

 

4.3
APT’s and targeted attacks

 APT (Advanced
Persistent Threat) is a whole new level of cyber crime ware. For years network
security capabilities such as web filtering or IPS have played a key part in
identifying such targeted attacks (mostly after the initial compromise). As
attackers grow bolder and employ more vague techniques, network security must
integrate with other security services in order to detect attacks. Hence one
must improve our security techniques in order to prevent more threats coming in
the future.

4.4
Mobile Networks

Today we are able to connect to anyone in any part
of the world. But for these mobile networks security is a very big concern.
These day’s firewalls and other security measures are becoming porous as people
are using devices such as tablets, phones, PC’s etc all of which again require
extra securities apart from those present in the applications used. We must
always think about the security issues of these mobile networks. Further mobile
networks are highly prone to these cyber crimes a lot of care must be taken in
case of their security issues.

4.5
IPv6: New internet protocol

 IPv6 is the
new Internet protocol which is replacing IPv4 (the older version), which has
been a backbone of our networks in general and the Internet at large.
Protecting IPv6 is not just a question of porting IPv4 capabilities. While IPv6
is a wholesale replacement in making more IP addresses available, there are
some very fundamental changes to the protocol which need to be considered in
security policy. Hence it is always better to switch to IPv6 as soon as possible
in order to reduce the risks regarding cyber crime.

4.6
Encryption of the code

 Encryption is
the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that eavesdroppers
or hackers cannot read it. In an encryption scheme, the message or information
is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, turning it into an unreadable
cipher text. This is usually done with the use of an encryption key, which
specifies how the message is to be encoded. Encryption at a very beginning
level protects data privacy and its integrity. But more use of encryption
brings more challenges in cyber security. Encryption is also used to protect
data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the
Internet, ecommerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless
intercoms etc. Hence by encrypting the code one can know if there is any
leakage of information. Hence the above are some of the trends changing the
face of cyber security in the world. The top network threats are mentioned in
below:

                                  

                                                                        
Fig-1

The above pie chart shows about the major threats
for networks and cyber security.

5.
ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN CYBER SECURITY

 As we become
more social in an increasingly connected world, companies must find new ways to
protect personal information. Social media plays a huge role in cyber security
and will contribute a lot to personal cyber threats. Social media adoption
among personnel is skyrocketing and so is the threat of attack. Since social
media or social networking sites are almost used by most of them every day it
has become a huge platform for the cyber criminals for hacking private
information and stealing valuable data. In a world where we’re quick to give up
our personal information, companies have to ensure they’re just as quick in
identifying threats, responding in real time, and avoiding a breach of any
kind. Since people are easily attracted by these social media the hackers use
them as a bait to get the information and the data they require. Hence people
must take appropriate measures especially in dealing with social media in order
to prevent the loss of their information. The ability of individuals to share
information with an audience of millions is at the heart of the particular
challenge that social media presents to businesses. In addition to giving
anyone the power to disseminate commercially sensitive information, social
media also gives the same power to spread false information, which can be just
being as damaging. The rapid spread of false information through social media
is among the emerging risks identified in Global Risks 2013 report. Though
social media can be used for cyber crimes these companies cannot afford to stop
using social media as it plays an important role in publicity of a company.
Instead, they must have solutions that will notify them of the threat in order
to fix it before any real damage is done. However companies should understand
this and recognize the importance of analyzing the information especially in
social conversations and provide appropriate security solutions in order to
stay away from risks. One must handle social media by using certain policies
and right technologies.

 

6.
CYBER SECURITY TECHNIQUES

 6.1 Access control and password security

The concept of user name and password has been
fundamental way of protecting our information. This may be one of the first
measures regarding cyber security.

6.2
Authentication of data

 The documents
that we receive must always be authenticated be before downloading that is should
be checked if it has originated from a trusted and a reliable source and that
they are not altered. Authenticating of these documents is usually done by the
antivirus software present in the devices. Thus good antivirus software is also
essential to protect the devices from viruses.

 6.3 Malware scanners

This is software that usually scans all the files
and documents present in the system for malicious code or harmful viruses.
Viruses, worms, and Trojan horses are examples of malicious software that are
often grouped together and referred to as malware.

 6.4 Firewalls

 A firewall is
a software program or piece of hardware that helps screen out hackers, viruses,
and worms that try to reach your computer over the Internet. All messages
entering or leaving the internet pass through the firewall present, which
examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security
criteria. Hence firewalls play an important role in detecting the malware.

 6.5 Anti-virus software

 Antivirus
software is a computer program that detects, prevents, and takes action to
disarm or remove malicious software programs, such as viruses and worms. Most
antivirus programs include an auto-update feature that enables the program to
download profiles of new viruses so that it can check for the new viruses as
soon as they are discovered. An antivirus software is a must and basic
necessity for every system.

     

                                                 Table II: Techniques on cyber
security

7
CYBER ETHICS

 Cyber ethics
are nothing but the code of the internet. When we practice these cyber ethics
there are good chances of us using the internet in a proper and safer way  The below are a few of them:

·        
DO   use the Internet to communicate and interact
with other people. Email and instant messaging make it easy to stay in touch
with friends and family members, communicate with work colleagues, and share
ideas and information with people across town or halfway around the world

·        
Don’t be a bully on the Internet. Do not
call people names, lie about them, send embarrassing pictures of them, or do
anything else to try to hurt them.

·        
Internet is considered as world’s
largest library with information on any topic in any subject area, so using
this information in a correct and legal way is always essential.

·        
Do not operate others accounts using
their passwords.

·        
Never try to send any kind of malware to
other’s systems and make them corrupt.

·        
Never share your personal information to
anyone as there is a good chance of others misusing it and finally you would
end up in a trouble.

·        
When you’re online never pretend to the
other person, and never try to create fake accounts on someone else as it would
land you as well as the other person into trouble.

·        
Always adhere to copyrighted information
and download games or videos only if they are permissible. The above are a few
cyber ethics one must follow while using the internet. We are always thought
proper rules from out very early stages the same here we apply in cyber space.

 

            8. CONCLUSION

 

 Computer security is a vast topic that is
becoming more important because the world is becoming highly interconnected,
with networks being used to carry out critical transactions. Cyber crime
continues to diverge down different paths with each New Year that passes and so
does the security of the information. The latest and disruptive technologies,
along with the new cyber tools and threats that come to light each day, are
challenging organizations with not only how they secure their infrastructure,
but how they require new platforms and intelligence to do so. There is no
perfect solution for cyber crimes but we should try our level best to minimize
them in order to have a safe and secure future in cyber space.